We have already talked about the path that is opening up artificial intelligence in law. The incorporation of these technologies has not been so fast in the legal field, unlike what has happened in other professional areas. However, with the passage of time it has become a tool that is beginning to have specific applications and functions.
Legal artificial intelligence is defined as a branch of computer science in the legal area. which substitutes functions, naturally attributed to human beings, by expert computer systems. Through them it is possible to develop legal tasks such as the preparation of a procedural strategy, the analysis of a contract, decision making and solutions to various cases, the storage of confidential information, among others. These tools can be programmed with the information provided by the user, with the intention of issuing a result.
An expert system, as detailed in the set of definitions proposed by the work Artificial Intelligence and Criminal Law by María Hernández Giménezis a program with the ability to provide expert answers on the subject for which it is configured to support decision making. It acts as if a specialist voice were called upon, in this case a lawyer.
The client is one of the main aspects in the development of the judicial and criminal process. This is a truth that continues to gain ground in the profession. Now, technological tools are also a great ally to differentiate oneself in the market, since they involve the automation of a large amount of information that broadens the horizons in the analysis of cases.
The benefits of these innovative applications The benefits are especially significant in terms of efficiency and productivity, since they allow for a considerable reduction in man-hours. However, the costs of their development are high and require law firms, both in the private and public spheres, to invest heavily in resources.
In the application of artificial intelligence to criminal law, Hernández Giménez highlights in his article some of the tools most commonly used in this specialization:
- Videoconference: It is one of the most used applications in the criminal process, thanks to the fact that it avoids the physical encounter between aggressor and victim, so witnesses and minors can be protected at the time of giving statements. It is also used at the time of trial as pre-constituted evidence to be provided in another phase of the case.
- Electronic testing: It is all information with probative value sent through an electronic medium. Although it is used in several areas of law, it is especially important in criminal law. Although electronic evidence can be manipulated by computer experts, it is known that it will be increasingly used as valuable information for the clarification of cases, so it is important that lawyers and specialists in Criminal Law are aware of its use and the way in which it can be manipulated.
- Support to police investigation: Technology in the field of police investigation has brought about a major change, as it has shown the emergence of new means of investigation.
- Criminal maps: They allow the study of the space and time of occurrence of crimes committed in a specific area and in a specific period of time.
- Drones: Images obtained by a drone are valuable evidence in criminal proceedings. They can be used to investigate a specific person or to locate new evidence.
- Detection of false allegations: Through algorithms and mathematical modeling, applications capable of detecting when a report is false have been created.
- Identification glasses: It is a visual device that allows obtaining immediate data on people through facial recognition.
- Crime scene analysis: It is responsible for processing all the data collected at a crime scene and developing possible lines of investigation. It also stores and organizes all the information in databases to be cross-referenced and used in different phases of the investigation.
Although artificial intelligence is a path with great strides made in the public and private spheres, it is not yet a reality.However, a specific and clear regulation has not yet been generated for it. Among the aspects that cause most concern in the law when it comes to establishing legal bases in this regard, is civil liability, i.e., the obligation to compensate whoever or whoever has been involuntarily damaged or injured by the use of these applications.
Undoubtedly, through algorithms and programmingIn addition, it is possible to create applications that allow criminal lawyers to obtain more quickly data essential to the investigation for the defense. However, in order to avoid risks, it is not superfluous for specialists to verify the origin of the information and the mechanisms that the applications are using to process it. The improvement of these tools can lead to a safer way than the one currently shown, which would save time in legal proceedings.